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內/外控量表 Locus of control

1月 21, 2011 5 Comments Edit Post

Rotter(1966)發展的內/外控量表是非常知名的泛用性心理測驗,我在研究中也將內/外控作為受試者調查的一個變量,用來探索受試者在標註系統中會有何種傾向。但是在找尋量表的時候卻發現針對原始量表的中文翻譯在網路上意外地難找,最後我是從「性格與社會心理測量總覽(下)」一書中找到看起來較為合適的中文翻譯拿來使用。

這個量表已經公開了將近半個世紀,我想就用這篇文章將量表的原文與中文翻譯記錄一下,並作一個簡單的介紹。

什麼是控制源(Locus of control)?

控制源(Locus of control,也有人翻譯做控制點)指的是人們對於成敗或後果原因所抱持的一概括性的期望。內在控制源(內控)指的是個人相信自己對所經歷的成敗負有責任,即相信個人的行為、性格、才能等是個人經歷的主要決定因素;而外在控制源(外控)指的是個人認為自己所得到的結果主要是由外部力量決定的,如運氣、社會關係、他人或其他因素。控制源概念的關注焦點在於個人所感知到的行為、性格與事件之間的互賴關係。

量表說明

控制源是一種單維度連續變項,一端稱為內控,另一端為外控。Rotter內/外控量表利用23對二選一單選測試題來調查,採用迫選作答式。此外還有了6對掩飾題。量表中內/外控測題成對出現,每條外控題記1分,總計分在0分(極端內控)至23分(極端外控)之間。必須強調的是,有些研究計分方式剛好相反:分數高的是內控、分數低的是外控。在使用與文獻探討上請務必注意到這之間的區別。在內/外控分組的處理上,Hsieh & Dwyer (2009)是依所有受試者的平均分數來分割組別,其研究中平均值為11.46分(標準差3.50),則12分以上作為外控、12分以下作為內控。

Rotter的內/外控測驗不是在於區別好壞,純粹只是調查受試者的傾向。許多研究將內外控的分類作為探索工具,用來在研究中預測傾向內控/外控的人們會有某些特別的特徵。儘管內外控量表非常有名,但是由於它的專門性不高,後人研究多將之改良成適合特定領域的專門問卷。大多數可以找到的文獻中都不是採用原始的內外控量表,而改量過後的問卷則會有使用上的限制,包括對象年齡、教育程度、研究目的等等。在使用上需要特別注意。

量表的信效度

Rotter內/外控量表作為一個評量工具,我們就要先確認它的信效度究竟到什麼程度,才能評估它的好壞。

信度方面,Rotter在1996年的「Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement」研究中調查結果來看,內部一致性信度(計算方式為Kuder-Richardson,中文常翻譯為庫李法)達到0.70;再測信度中,60名大學生樣本間隔一個月後再測信度係數值為0.72,117名大學生間隔兩個月後再測信度係數值為0.55。Rotter認為造成兩種再測信度差異的原因是因為施測方法不同。

效度方面,有關內/外控的研究中,有一半以上採用了Rotter的量表,而大部分文獻都揭示人們對於自己控制自己命運的感知是存在個別差異,而Rotter量表能夠敏感地辨別出這些差異。

閱讀學習與內外控

在閱讀學習方面,不少研究將內/外控作為一種學習型態的變量。認為學習責任較多在自己身上的人稱之為「內控」(internal controll),反之認為責任不在自己身上的人稱之為「外控」(external control)。(Lefcourt, 1982) 在需要使用技能的情況下,比起外控來說,內控會花更多時間在決策上;在較不要求技能或是較憑運氣的任務中,內控的回應中表現較為粗心大意與衝動。(Johnson & Kilmann, 1975; Kukulu, Buldukoglu, Kuladaç & Köksal, 2006; Wheeler & Davis, 1978)

某些傾向外控、能力較差的讀者需要在閱讀過程中支援(Coker, 1990; Coldevin et al., 1993)。這些學生相信他們的表現不會受到獎勵影響,而且通常難以控制。因此,他們需要教師的支援,甚至會懷疑自己的學習能力。Coker等人(1990)研究發現內控學習型態的讀者閱讀表現較佳,同時作為一個優秀的讀者,他們也能在閱讀中使用多種閱讀策略。比起較差的讀者來說,這種能力能夠幫助內控學習者理解未知單字的意義。(Arden-Close, 1993)。

內/外控量表題目

問卷來源:原始來源是來自Rotter(1966),控制源教學網頁裡面也有詳細的教學。(注意,裡面的內外控計分是高分內控、低分外控)中文翻譯是參考自楊中芳(1997)。

問卷說明:這份量表只是用來了解您對事情的看法和感受,並沒有對錯。請根據您個人真正的想法、感覺或行為來回答以下的問題,感謝您的合作。

1 a. 子女出了問題是因為父母懲罰過度。
Children get into trouble because their parents punish them too much.
b. 現今多數孩子的問題是父母過分溺愛。
The trouble with most children nowadays is that their parents are too easy with them.
2 a. 人們生活中發生的很多倒楣事,在某種程度上是由於運氣不佳所致。
Many of the unhappy things in people's lives are partly due to bad luck.
b. 人們的不幸是其自身錯誤造成的。
People's misfortunes result from the mistakes they make.
3 a. 戰爭發生的一個主要原因是人們對政治漠不關心。
One of the major reasons why we have wars is because people don't take enough interest in politics.
b. 戰爭是永遠不可避免的,無論人們怎麼努力去防止它。
There will always be wars, no matter how hard people try to prevent them.
4 a. 從長遠來看,人生在世總會獲得應得的尊敬。
In the long run people get the respect they deserve in this world.
b. 無論個人如何努力,不幸的是其價值還是經常被忽略。
Unfortunately, an individual's worth often passes unrecognized no matter how hard he tries.
5 a. 「老師沒有公平對待學生」,這種看法毫無道理。
The idea that teachers are unfair to students is nonsense.
b. 多數學生都沒有意識到他們的分數受到偶然因素影響的程度有多大。
Most students don't realize the extent to which their grades are influenced by accidental happenings.
6 a. 不借助外力,一個人很難成為有效的領導者。
Without the right breaks one cannot be an effective leader.
b. 一些能幹的人未能當上領導者是因為他沒能把握機會。
Capable people who fail to become leaders have not taken advantage of their opportunities.
7 a. 無論您如何努力,有些人就是不喜歡您。
No matter how hard you try some people just don't like you.
b. 不能獲得別人好感的人是因為他們不懂得如何與人相處。
People who can't get others to like them don't understand how to get along with others.
8 a. 遺傳對人的個性有著主要的決定作用。
Heredity plays the major role in determining one's personality.
b. 一個人的生活經歷決定了他會是什麼樣的人。
It is one's experiences in life which determine what they're like.
9 a. 我常常發現「人算不如天算」。
I have often found that what is going to happen will happen.
b. 「聽天由命」對我來說永遠不如爭取主動「人定勝天」。
Trusting to fate has never turned out as well for me as making a decision to take a definite course of action.
10 a. 對於準備充分的學生來說,基本不存在考試不公這一類的問題。
In the case of the well prepared student there is rarely if ever such a thing as an unfair test.
b. 很多時候考題與課程內容相去甚遠,再用功也是白費。
Many times exam questions tend to be so unrelated to course work that studying in really useless.
11 a. 成功之道唯有刻苦努力,與運氣好壞無關。
Becoming a success is a matter of hard work, luck has little or nothing to do with it.
b. 找一份好工作主要靠天時地利。
Getting a good job depends mainly on being in the right place at the right time.
12 a. 平民百姓能夠影響政府決策。
The average citizen can have an influence in government decisions.
b. 世界是由有權有勢的少數人左右的,平民百姓無能為力。
This world is run by the few people in power, and there is not much the little guy can do about it.
13 a. 我在訂計畫時就已經幾乎肯定自己可以將之付諸實現。
When I make plans, I am almost certain that I can make them work.
b. 計畫訂得太早並不明智,因為很多事情只不過是運氣好壞的結果而已。
It is not always wise to plan too far ahead because many things turn out to be a matter of good or bad fortune anyhow.
14 a. 有些人簡直一無是處。
There are certain people who are just no good.
b. 每個人都有其可取之處。
There is some good in everybody.
15 a. 對我來說,達到自己的目標與運氣無關或關係很小。
In my case getting what I want has little or nothing to do with luck.
b. 很多時候,我們大可以靠拋硬幣來決定何去何從。
Many times we might just as well decide what to do by flipping a coin.
16 a. 誰能出人頭地常常首先取決於誰佔天時地利。
Who gets to be the boss often depends on who was lucky enough to be in the right place first.
b. 要讓人們幹正事靠的是能力而不是運氣。
Getting people to do the right thing depends upon ability, luck has little or nothing to do with it.
17 a. 就國際事務而言,我們大家都是那些我們既不了解也無法控制的力量的犧牲品。
Children get into trouble because their parents punish them too much.
b. 通過積極參與政治和社會活動,一般老百姓可以左右世界大事。
By taking an active part in political and social affairs the people can control world events.
18 a. 大多數人都未意識到他們的生活受偶然因素控制的程度有多大。
Most people don't realize the extent to which their lives are controlled by accidental happenings.
b. 「運氣」這類的事情根本不存在。
There really is no such thing as "luck."
19 a. 人在任何時候都應該勇於承認自己的錯誤。
One should always be willing to admit mistakes.
b. 處理錯誤的最好辦法就是加以掩蓋。
It is usually best to cover up one's mistakes.
20 a. 您很難了解某人是否真正喜歡您。
It is usually best to cover up one's mistakes.
b. 您有多少朋友取決您的人品有多好。
How many friends you have depends upon how nice a person you are.
21 a. 從長遠來看,發生在我們身上的壞事與好事相互抵消。
In the long run the bad things that happen to us are balanced by the good ones.
b. 霉運大多是無能、無知或懶惰的結果。
Most misfortunes are the result of lack of ability, ignorance, laziness, or all three.
22 a. 只要下足功夫,我們可以剷除政治腐敗。
With enough effort we can wipe out political corruption.
b. 人民對於政治家們的幕後活動鞭長莫及。
It is difficult for people to have much control over the things politicians do in office.
23 a. 有時我真不明白老師是怎麼打分數的。
Sometimes I can't understand how teachers arrive at the grades they give.
b. 我用功與否與我得的分數有直接關聯。
There is a direct connection between how hard 1 study and the grades I get.
24 a. 優秀的領導者要求人們自行決定應該做什麼。
A good leader expects people to decide for themselves what they should do.
b. 優秀的領導者明確地告訴每個人應該做什麼。
A good leader makes it clear to everybody what their jobs are.
25 a. 很多時候我覺得自己對周圍發生的事無能為力。
Many times I feel that I have little influence over the things that happen to me.
b. 要讓我相信機遇或運氣主導了我的生活是不可能的。
It is impossible for me to believe that chance or luck plays an important role in my life.
26 a. 孤獨的人是因為他們沒有盡力友善待人。
People are lonely because they don't try to be friendly.
b. 想方設法取悅他人沒有多大用,因為他們喜歡您就喜歡您,不喜歡您就不喜歡您。
There's not much use in trying too hard to please people, if they like you, they like you.
27 a. 學校裡太過強調運動了。
There is too much emphasis on athletics in high school.
b. 團隊運動是陶冶品性的極佳方式。
Team sports are an excellent way to build character.
28 a. 我的今天是我自己一手造成的。
What happens to me is my own doing.
b. 有時我感覺對自己目前的生活方向沒有太大的控制。
Sometimes I feel that I don't have enough control over the direction my life is taking.
29 a. 大多時候,我都不能理解政治家們的所作所為。
Most of the time I can't understand why politicians behave the way they do.
b. 從長遠來看,人民自己應對國家何地方政府的劣績負責。
In the long run the people are responsible for bad government on a national as well as on a local level.
 

內/外控量表計分

當受試者回答以下題目中得分的選項時,則獲得外控題得分1分。不在下列題目中的題目即為掩飾題,不論答哪個選項皆與結果無關。

[答案藏在捲軸下面]






2a
3b
4a
5b
6a
7a
9a
10b
11b
12b
13b
15b
16a
17a
18a
20a
21a
22b
23a
25a
26b
28b
29a

參考文獻

Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological monographs, 80(1), 1.

Robinson, J. (1997). 性格與社會心理測量總覽. (楊中芳, Tran.). 臺北市: 遠流出版事業股份有限公司.

Hsieh, P., & Dwyer, F. (2009). The Instructional Effect of Online Reading Strategies and Learning Styles on Student Academic Achievement. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 12(2), 36-50.

Lefcourt, H. M. (1982). Locus of control: Current trends in theory and research. Lawrence Erlbaum.

Arden-Close, C. (1993). NNS Readers. Reading in a Foreign Language, 9(2), 867–93.

Cappella, E., & Weinstein, R. S. (2001). Turning Around Reading Achievement: Predictors of High School Students' Academic Resilience* 1. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(4), 758–771.

Coker, L. S. (1990). Success in Nursing: A Primary Intervention Course. Nurse Educator, 15(6), 14.

Coldevin, G. (1993). Influence of Instructional Control and Learner Characteristics on Factual Recall and Procedural Learning from Interactive Video. Canadian Journal of Educational Communication, 22(2), 113–30.

Johnson, B. L., & Kilmann, P. R. (1975). Locus of control and perceived confidence in problem-soliving ablities. Journal of clinical psychology, 31(1), 54–55.

Kukulu, K., Buldukoglu, K., Kulakac, O., & Koksal, C. D. (2006). The effects of locus of control, communication skills and social support on assertiveness in female nursing students. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 34(1), 27–40.

Maguiness, C. (1999). Show Us How: A School-Wide Programme for Reluctant Readers.

Wheeler, R. W., & Davis, J. M. (1979). Decision making as a function of locus of control and cognitive dissonance. Psychological reports.

Whitney, P. (1992). Children’s out-of-school activities. In 42nd annual Meeting of the National Reading Conference. San Antonio, TX (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 358 408).

Neill, J. (2006, December 6). Locus of Control - A Class Tutorial. Retrieved December 25, 2010, from http://www.wilderdom.com/games/descriptions/LocusOfControlExercise.html


  • 2011/4/1/:把「Caker」修正成為「Coker」了,而且原文裡面引用的文獻也是錯誤的,不是1989而是1990,在此修正。

總共5 則留言, (我要發問)

  1. 1.(注意,... 計分是高分內控、低分外控...)

    2. 量表計分...當受試者回答以下題目得分選項時,則獲得外控題得分1分...

    如2.為真,則1.應該是高分外控
    此兩敘述彼此矛盾, 應屬筆誤, 待作者更正。

    回覆刪除
  2. 1. 是指控制源教學網頁
    http://www.wilderdom.com/games/descriptions/LocusOfControlExercise.html

    2. 是我參考書中整理的答案。要參考我的答案時請以2的準則為主。

    回覆刪除
  3. 小弟目前研究的也是內外控的議題,的確也如版大文中提及的,針對原始量表的中文翻譯在網路上意外地難找...所以想請教版大,關於您提到的「性格與社會心理量表總覽(下)」這本書,在哪裏還可以找得到? (借? 圖書館?)謝謝您!

    回覆刪除
  4. 我自己找到了, 應該是以您後面參考書目「性格與社會心理測量總覽」來找...文中的書名有一點不一樣...謝謝!

    回覆刪除

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