Library and information science: An historical perspective 圖資學歷史


Rayward, W. B. (1985). Library and information science: An historical perspective. Journal of library history, 120–136.


  • 論點:Librarianship is a major component of a more general information science. (Machlup & Mansfield)
  • Patrick Wilson: 沒有資訊科學,只有 “a Bibliographical R&D Community”
  • 歷史法分析:從19世紀中期到20世紀中期


  • Information 資訊
  • Librarianship 圖書館事業
  • Bibliography 書目
  • Documentation 文獻學

Librarianship & bibliography (19世紀末)

  • 探討書本的歷史與文字載體
  • 1950s:書目的混沌時代
    • Paul Otlet: universal bibliographical repertory
    • Bibliographic control (1946)
    • Subject indexing

bibliography into documentation (1890s)

  • Universal Bibliographical Repertory by Belgians
    • the first faceted classification
    • Universal Decimal Classification (UDC)
  • Otlet引進詞彙 “documentation”: all aspects of the study of documents broadly conceived-books, periodicals, newspapers, bibliographies, administrative records of government, patents, industrial catalogs, indexes, abstracts, reviews-anything written or iconographic that could contribute to our sum of knowledge.
  • International Institute of Bibliography: 有效率搜尋與降低成本

Watson Davis & microfilm 微縮片

  • 提倡利用microfilm保存並集中管理文獻
  • American Documentation Institute (ADI, 1937): 用微縮片管理科學文獻和館際互借──Bibliofilm Service
  • 提出Universal bibliography的具體方案 (1937)
  • 圖書館學校開始教授微縮片的技術與管理服務

True graduate education (1937)

  • Graduate Library School at the University of Chicago
  • 強調在圖書館實務問題中應用嚴謹的研究方法
  • “library science” 名稱確立

二次大戰的影響(1930s – 1940s)

  • 研究量大增,文獻傳播需求帶來資訊處理上的問題
  • 戰後,政府致力於鞏固科學與技術資訊,不僅資助研究進行,也關心研究結果傳播的效率
  • Machine-dominated 機器為主的研究
    • ADI轉變成American Society for Information Science (ASIS),研究創新實驗機器
    • Machine-searching變成重要議題
    • Vannevar Bush "As We May Think" (1945)
    • Mechanical translation: 自動化語言翻譯

Documentation into information retrieval (1950s前期)

  • Wise and Perry (1950) "Multiple Coding and the Rapid Selector" : 討論檢索與分類,發展概念編碼
  • Perry (1950) "Information Analysis and Machine Searching":
    • documentation methods
    • new kinds of terminological expression for searching (Boolean)
    • documents and bibliography 形容為 “units” of “information”
    • "information correlation"
  • Calvin Mooers (1950) "Coding, Information Retrieval, and the Rapid Selector": 確立 "information retrieval"
  • Perry and Kent (1957) "Documentation and lnformation Retrieval": 資訊檢索系統的模型,包含分類與索引系統


  • “Bibliographic Organization” (1950): 傳統圖書館會需要更多工具,像是電腦或機器
  • Louis Ridenour “Bibliography in an Age of Science”: 應結合閱讀室、討論室、交流中心
  • Margaret Egan (1952) “The Communication of Specialized Information”:
    • 科技文獻搜尋需求改變了書目記錄研究的形態
    • 政府與企業開始了解特殊資訊的價值

Information sciences (1950s末期 – 1960s)

    • 由於政府大量資助,各種研究專家與產業興盛
    • 資訊科學成為跨學科領域,包含數學、電腦技術、電子工程與其他學科
    • Air Force對資訊科學詞彙的定義
    • Information is encoded knowledge
    • Information sciences is comprised, therefore, of the body of scientific knowledge, methodology and techniques necessary for the organization, transmission, transformation, evaluation, ordering, filtering and interpretation of information
    • Information systems ... must provide for the gathering, processing, and interpretation of intelligence data in restricted, tactical, and natural strategic contexts. . . . The predominant usefulness of future information processing systems will be in aiding the human in ordering and filtering and interpreting extremely complex situations and to propose to him, or even make for him, decisions he could not arrive at rationally ....
  • 電腦成為資訊科學與圖書館學的銜接者
    • Online revolution and the Growth of the information industry
    • Modern theoretical information retrieval research
    • Bibliometrics
  • Machlup and Mansfield 定義 “information science” 用詞
    • 廣義:It stands for the systematic study of information and may include all or any combination of the academic disciplines
    • 偏向電腦:"computer and information science"
    • 偏向圖書館學:"library and information science"
    • 狹義:改善科技資訊的傳播、資訊服務與系統的應用研究
      • 科學家與學者的傳播模式
      • 文獻成長與分布
      • 資訊交換的研究方法
      • 資訊存取控制
      • 資訊系統與網路的塑模與模擬
      • 使用者資訊行為
      • 人因系統設計
    • "information science" > "library science"